Greek and Roman Sexualities: A Sourcebook (Bloomsbury Sources in Ancient History)

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New Releases. Description Amid growing interest in food and drink as an academic discipline in recent years, this volume is the first to provide insight into eating and drinking by focusing on what the ancients themselves actually had to say about this important topic. A thorough and varied sourcebook, it is structured thematically and is a unique asset to any course on food and foodways.

Each chapter consists of an introduction along with a concluding bibliography of suggested readings. The excerpts themselves, rendered in clear and readable English that remains faithful to the original Latin or Greek, are set in their proper social and historical context, with the author of each passage fully identified. An unparalleled compilation of essential source material for Classics courses and with a wide range of evidence, drawing upon literary, inscriptional, legal and religious testimony, Food and Drink in Antiquity will also be particularly well suited to the interdisciplinary focus of modern food studies.

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    Table of contents Figure List 1. Introduction 2. Food and Drink in Ancient Literature 3. Review quote Donahue's thoughtful and engaging commentary guides the reader through this wealth of fascinating material.

    Sourcebooks remain wonderful resources for students and any inquisitive reader. An excellent sourcebook that would make a very useful addition to any library, bookshelf, or indeed, the kitchen of an adventurous cook.

    Customer Reviews

    The source selection is well made and the commentary by Donahue is given with great expertise. Why waste time worrying about someone who would never be more than an ex-slave? The statute that began the great shift in the view on prostitutes and pimps was the lex Iulia de adulteriis coercendis.

    This law, enacted by Augustus, banned sex workers from the penalties that all other citizens received for illicit sexual relations. While regular people were expected to return to the older, more moral ways, prostitutes and pimps were allowed to continue their unchaste acts. While this law caused regular citizens to look down on prostitutes due to the large social gap between them, it is also clear that the same law was paramount when it came to accepting prostitution as a legitimate means of making money.

    Because Augustus did not make prostitution illegal, or ban these people from the sexual acts they were selling, he appeared to be approving of them. With this law, there seemed to be a simultaneous approval from the state coupled with a degradation of the workers themselves. Even though the Republic was allowing the workers to profit from sexual acts, they could still be condemned by the citizens themselves for these actions.

    The feelings toward prostitutes and the laws that came about to regulate them are very similar to the chicken and egg debate. Were the laws restricting prostitutes responsible for the social rifts, or was it the social rifts that caused the laws? As stated earlier, there was a hierarchy within the prostitutes of Rome. The most soughtafter and expensive women were called meretrix while the sex workers who charged less for their work were called scortum, and sometimes lupa wolf. He made a statute that required prostitutes to register for both tax and identification purposes.

    This tax made it a lot less common for part-time prostitutes to continue with the profession. The amount they owed did not change relative to how much they worked, so a prostitute who charged a lot less would have to pay the same amount of money to the state as a worker who was able to charge more for their work.

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    At first, Caligula collected the profits from this tax via the publicani without regard to whether or not the taxpayer lived in Rome. The job was eventually transferred to the Praetorian Guard body guards to the Roman emperors for those who resided in Rome. Outside of Rome, the money was collected from ordinary army troops and then transferred over to the emperor. This way of collecting money was used for security and ensured that the maximum profit was collected. The army was the largest source of manpower that the emperors had, as well as the most intimidating. It would have been extremely hard to collect the money from such a large empire any other way.

    The creation of a tax specifically designated for prostitution resulted in a major shift in attitude towards sex workers and what they did. While prostitution was extremely popular until Caligula came into power, the workers were still looked down upon for their impure line of work.

    Once the tax was enacted, this view was altered dramatically. Thomas McGinn, a professor of classics at Vanderbilt University, puts it perfectly, claiming that by creating a profit from sexual commerce, in a way, Caligula legitimized prostitution. Caligula appeared to put prostitution in the same category as legitimate businesses because he also implemented taxes on taverns, food, slaves, and artisans. Caligula was the first emperor to have written references to sex into a Roman tax law.

    Essentially, the tax was an income tax, the type of tax that was imposed on most other professions at the time. The latter reasoning seems more likely, due to the fact that Caligula also created taxes for other legitimate businesses in Rome. In summary, he did not discriminate by just taxing pimps and prostitutes. No matter the reasoning behind it, Caligula got the idea for this tax from other places in the empire. Apparently Caligula, like many other Romans, had a fascination with other cultures and civilizations, and this was something that may have affected the statutes he passed.

    The tax on prostitution was one of the most effective taxes enacted by the state. Taxes on other businesses, for the most part, were abolished once the emperor following Caligula, Claudius who ruled 41 C. He even refunded some of the tax dollars back to the businesses.

    Greek and Roman Sexualities: A Sourcebook

    The tax on prostitution was not abolished, though, because Claudius felt it was too profitable to eliminate. Severus Alexander, a later emperor, was able to use the proceeds of the prostitution tax for the construction of buildings in Rome during his reign C. The fact that emperors following Caligula continued to enforce his legislative act for about years just goes to show how important it was to the state, and how long the changes in attitude towards prostitutes lasted. Although the Christian emperors were following a new religion that seemed to look down upon sexual promiscuity, they kept enforcing the tax and collecting money from it.

    Despite the fact that the Christians may have left it in effect just for monetary reasons, by doing so they continued to subtly support prostitution. This alleged attitude shift does not necessarily mean that the entirety of the Roman population was suddenly accepting of prostitution, but rather that the legitimization of sex work made it seem more tolerable in the eyes of the people.

    WRW Companion Bibliography

    This thoughtless process directly shows the change in opinion towards prostitutes. The earlier laws regulating what prostitutes and pimps could or could not do limited them both legally and socially. By restricting their actions, the Roman population assumed that prostitutes were subpar.

    They believed people who had laws enacted specifically upon them did not deserve to be considered full citizens because they legally were not considered as such. When Caligula came into power, he seized the opportunity to create a plethora of taxes to help raise money for the state, the most successful being the tax on prostitution. While initially the people of Rome believed prostitution was acceptable albeit morally questionable when they benefited from it, the laws enacted in 40 C.

    Ultimately, these laws effectively altered the social view of prostitution to a legitimate form of business in ancient Rome. Ibid, 9. Ibid, Bibliography Barrett, Anthony.